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17 december 2013 Dag 332 i femte året - Historia

17 december 2013 Dag 332 i femte året - Historia


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President Barack Obama talar med chefer från ledande teknikföretag efter ett möte i Roosevelt -rummet i Vita huset, 17 december 2013.

10:00 PRESIDENTEN och VICEPRESIDENTEN mottar presidentens dagliga briefing
ovala rummet
Stängd press

10:45 PRESIDENTEN och VICEPRESIDENTEN träffar VD: ar

Roosevelt -rummet

12:30 PRESIDENTEN och VICEPRESIDENTEN träffas för lunch
Privat matsal

16:15 PRESIDENTEN och VICEPRESIDENTEN träffar försvarsminister Hagel
ovala rummet


Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut, dotter till kung Thutmose I, blev drottning av Egypten när hon gifte sig med sin halvbror, Thutmose II, vid 12 års ålder. Efter hans död började hon fungera som regent för sin styvson, barnet Thutmose III, men tog senare på en faraos fullmakter och blev medhärskare i Egypten omkring 1473 f.Kr. Som farao utvidgade Hatshepsut egyptisk handel och övervakade ambitiösa byggprojekt, framför allt Temple of Deir el-Bahri, beläget i västra Theben, där hon skulle begravas. Hatshepsut, avbildad (på hennes egen order) som en han i många samtida bilder och skulpturer, förblev i stort sett okänd för forskare fram till 1800 -talet. Hon är en av de få och mest kända kvinnliga faraonerna i Egypten.


Abstrakt

Objektiva uppskattningar, baserade på midjebärda accelerometrar, indikerar att vuxna tillbringar mer än halva dagen (55%) i stillasittande beteenden. Vår studie undersökte sambandet mellan sitttid och kardiometaboliska riskfaktorer efter justering för kardiorespiratorisk kondition (CRF).

En tvärsnittsanalys utfördes med 4 486 män och 1 845 kvinnor som rapporterade daglig uppskattad sitttid, hade mått på fetma, blodfetter, glukos och blodtryck och genomgick maximal stresstestning. Vi använde en modelleringsstrategi med hjälp av logistisk regressionsanalys för att bedöma CRF som en potentiell effektmodifierare och för att kontrollera eventuella förvirrande effekter av CRF.

Män som satt nästan hela tiden (cirka 100%) var mer benägna att vara överviktiga oavsett om de definierades av midjemått (OR, 2,61 95% CI, 1,25 & ndash5,47) eller procent av kroppsfett (OR, 3,33 95% CI, 1,35 & ndash8,20) än var män som satt nästan ingen av tiden (cirka 0%). Sitttiden var inte signifikant associerad med andra kardiometaboliska riskfaktorer efter justering för CRF -nivå. För kvinnor observerades inga signifikanta samband mellan sitttid och kardiometaboliska riskfaktorer efter justering för CRF och andra kovariater.

När vårdpersonal kämpar för att hitta sätt att bekämpa fetma och dess hälsoeffekter kan minskning av sitttiden vara ett första steg i en total fysisk aktivitetsplan som innehåller strategier för att minska stillasittande genom ökad fysisk aktivitet bland män. Dessutom behövs ytterligare forskning för att belysa sambandet mellan sittetid och CRF för kvinnor samt de bakomliggande mekanismerna som är involverade i dessa relationer.


Vindpark i Brasilien. Författare: Fotos GOVBA. Licens: Creative Commons, Attribution 2.0 Generic

23 september (Renewables Now)-Den brasilianska utvecklingsbanken, eller BNDES, meddelade på tisdagen att den har tecknat ett finansieringsavtal på 100 miljoner USD (85,4 miljoner euro) med Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) för 331,85 MW vindprojekt .

Finansieringen kommer att stödja 12 vindkraftsprojekt som ska lokaliseras i delstaterna Bahia och Pernambuco. Sammantaget uppskattar BNDES att den totala investering som krävs för att bygga dessa parker kommer att överstiga 2 miljarder BRL (368,3 miljoner USD/314,6 miljoner euro).

Med en löptid på 12 år betalades lånet ut på en enda del. Mizuho Bank Ltd och The Bank of Saga Ltd agerade som medfinansiärer.

Detta är det femte avtalet mellan parterna som faller under den japanska bankens Global Action for Reconciling Economic Growth and Environmental Preservation (GREEN) -initiativ. Hittills har BNDES samlat in 950 miljoner USD med JBIC 's GREEN, noterade det.


Hantering av divertikulit

Förekomsten av perforerad sigmoid divertikulär sjukdom i utvecklade länder har ökat från 2,4/100 000 1986 till 3,8/100 000 år 2000. 1 Divertikulär sjukdom är en av de fem mest kostsamma gastrointestinala störningarna i USA. 2 För trettio år sedan minskade andelen människor som dog av divertikulär sjukdom. 3 Under de senaste 20 åren har dock de årliga åldersstandardiserade antagningsgraderna och kirurgiska ingrepp ökat med 16% från 20,1/100 000 till 23,2/100 000, medan sjukhusvistelse och befolkningsdödlighet är oförändrad. 4

Denna ökande sjukdomsbörda innebär att kliniker inom primär- och sekundärvården kommer att se ett ökande antal patienter med divertikulär sjukdom och dess komplikationer. Denna översyn täcker den senaste utvecklingen inom hanteringen av divertikulär sjukdom, inklusive den nuvarande trenden mot konservativ snarare än operativ behandling efter återhämtning från den första episoden. 5


Lovie Smith utvecklar band med sin fotbollstränare

Tidigare Tulsa defensiv back & nuvarande Illinois huvudtränare Lovie Smith påminner om att John Cooper rekryterades till Tulsa och bandet han utvecklade med tränaren.

31. Dabo Swinney, 129-30
Clemson (2008-nu)

Swinney var Clemsons tränare när han utsågs till tillfällig huvudtränare efter att Tommy Bowden avgick sex matcher under säsongen 2008. Han var ett överraskande val för att ersätta Bowden efter den säsongen, och sedan väckte han ett en gång vilande program inte långt efter. Tigrarna vann nationella mästerskap 2016 och '18 och verkar inte vara redo att bromsa när som helst snart.

32. Jock Sutherland, 144-28-14
Lafayette (1919-23 33-8-2) och Pittsburgh (1924-38 111-20-12)

År 1924 ersatte Sutherland Glenn "Pop" Warner som Pitts tränare. Sutherland guidade sin alma mater till sju östra fotbollstitlar och fyra framträdanden i Rose Bowl. Hans 111 segrar på Pitt inkluderade hela 79 avstängningar. Hans lag från 1937 gick 9-0-1 och erkändes som nationell mästare.

33. John Robinson, 132-77-4
USC (1976-82 och 1993-97 104-35-4) och UNLV (1999-2004 28-42)

Robinsons första tid på USC var så bra att trojanerna anställde honom en andra gång, efter att han tillbringat nio säsonger i NFL. Robinsons USC -lag vann fem konferenstitlar och en andel av det nationella mästerskapet 1978. Hans lag gick 8-1 i skålspel, inklusive en gnistrande 4-0 i Rose Bowl. Han coachade två vinnare av Heisman Trophy: löparbackarna Charles White (1979) och Marcus Allen (1981).

34. Arnett (Ace) Mumford, 233-85-23
Jarvis Christian (1924-27 6-8-3), biskop (1927-29 22-7-1), Texas College (1931-35 26-9-6) och Southern (1936-61 179-61-13)

Mumfords tränartekniker var tidlösa: Hans Texas College och södra lag vann totalt sex svarta college -mästerskap på fyra olika årtionden. Från 1948-51 hade hans södra lag en obesegrad rad i 38 matcher och vann tre svarta college-titlar. 1948 gick Jaguars 12-0 och slog San Francisco State i Fruit Bowl.

35. Jim Tressel, 229-79-2
Youngstown State (1986-2000 135-57-2) och Ohio State (2001-10 94-22)

Tressel vann 106 matcher (12 lämnades senare på grund av NCAA -sanktioner) på 10 säsonger i Ohio State, och hans lag spelade i åtta Bowl Championship Series -matcher. Han guidade Buckeyes till deras första raka nationella titel på 34 år när de slutade 14-0 2002. Lika viktigt gick han 9-1 mot Michigan. Hans lag vann 135 matcher och fyra division I-AA nationella titlar i Youngstown State.

36. Robert Neyland, 173-31-12
Tennessee (1926-34, 1936-40 och 1946-52)

Från 1926 till '34 vann volontärerna 76 matcher, förlorade bara sju och gjorde fem. När den amerikanska armén skickade Neyland, en brigadgeneral, till Panamakanalsonen 1935, gick UT 4-5. Han gick i pension från armén och återvände till sidlinjen nästa år. I tre olika stints guidade han volontärerna till minst en andel av sju konferenstitlar och 1951 års AP -nationella mästerskap. En fast disciplinär, Neyland anses fortfarande vara en av spelets största defensiva sinnen.

37. Pete Carroll, 83-18
USC (2001-09)

Carroll var inte USC: s första val att ersätta Paul Hackett i december 2000 - och han var inte heller en populär. Han hade fått sparken av två NFL-lag och hade inte tränat på college sedan 1983. Men Carroll slutade med att vara det rätta valet, eftersom han ledde trojanerna till åtminstone en andel av ryggrads-nationella titlar 2003 och '04 , sju topp-fem på varandra följande mål och sex segrar i BCS-skålspel. Under hans bevakning rankades trojanerna som nr 1 i AP -undersökningen under 33 veckor i rad. USC vann 97 matcher under Carroll, men 14 lämnades senare av NCAA.

Texas -tränaren Darrell K Royal och hans offensiva samordnare Emory Bellard skapade överträdelsebrottet, som svepte college -fotboll. Bettmann via Getty Images

38. Darrell K Royal, 184-60-5
Mississippi State (1954-55 12-8), Washington (1956 5-5) och Texas (1957-76 167-47-5)

När Royal en gång blev tillfrågad om han någonsin skulle kunna byta sitt brott mot en passningsattack, sa han berömt att du måste "dansa med den som bar dig". Arkitekten för wishbone -brottet trodde alltid på ett starkt löpspel, och det var en stapelvara i hans tre nationella mästerskapslag i Texas 1963, '69 och 1970. På 20 säsonger i Texas hade Royal's lag aldrig förlorat rekord, de hade vann eller delade 11 Southwest Conference -titlar och nådde 10 Cotton Bowls. Hans lag vann 30 raka matcher från 1968-70.

39. Frosty Westering, 305-96-7
Parsons (1962-63 15-4), Lea (1966-71 29-22-2) och Pacific Lutheran (1972-2003 261-70-5)

Den förra USA: s marinkorps borrinstruktör levde efter ett mantra i livet: "Make the Big Time Where You Are." Och det är precis vad Westering gjorde på Pacific Lutheran, en skola med cirka 3100 elever i Tacoma, Washington. Han guidade Lutes till 261 segrar, NAIA Division II nationella titlar 1980, '87 och 1993 och ett NCAA Division III nationellt mästerskap 1999. Han är en av endast 13 college -fotbollstränare som har vunnit minst 300 karriärspel.

40. Frank Broyles, 149-62-6
Missouri (1957 5-4-1) och Arkansas (1958-76 144-58-5)

Broyles var så skicklig på att sätta ihop tränarstaber att ett nationellt pris för assisterande tränare utses till hans ära. Framtida huvudtränare som Joe Gibbs, Jimmy Johnson, Johnny Majors och Jackie Sherrill arbetade för honom. År 1964 gick Arkansas 11-0, delade den nationella titeln och förlorade inte igen förrän Cotton Bowl efter nästa säsong. 1969 rankades Razorbacks som nr 2 och förlorade mot nr 1 Texas 15-14 i "Century Game". Broyles ledde Hogs till fyra Cotton Bowls och fyra Sugar Bowls.

41. Ben Schwartzwalder, 178-96-3
Muhlenberg (1946-48 25-5) och Syracuse (1949-73 153-91-3)

När Syracuse anställde Schwartzwalder för att återuppliva sitt kämpande program 1949 skämtade han: "Alumnerna ville ha en tränare med stort namn. De fick en långtränare." Ingen tränare vann fler matcher på Syracuse, och kanske ingen tränare i sportens historia samlade en större samling löparbackar. Schwartzwalder var en dekorerad fallskärmsjägare från andra världskriget och coachade College Football Hall of Fame som backar Jim Brown, Ernie Davis, Floyd Little och Larry Csonka. Hans lag från 1959 gick 11-0 och vann skolans enda nationella titel.

42. Herbert (Fritz) Crisler, 116-32-9
Minnesota (1930-31 10-7-1), Princeton (1932-37 35-9-5) och Michigan (1938-47 71-16-3)

Även om två av hans lag i Princeton och ett i Michigan bokade obesegrade säsonger, är Crisler kanske mest känd som fadern till tvåplutonsfotboll. År 1945, med många av hans spelare som kämpade utomlands under andra världskriget, utarbetade han ett system för att använda ett lag för offensiv och ett för försvar för att kompensera för brist på djup och erfarenhet. Två år senare gick Wolverines 10-0 och sprängde USC 49-0 i Rose Bowl. Han krediteras också för att ha introducerat de berömda bevingade hjälmarna i Michigan.

43. Frank Kush, 176-54-1
Arizona State (1958-79)

Kush var kanske den mest intensiva och fysiskt krävande tränaren i sporten vid en tidpunkt då Alabamas Bear Bryant och Ohio State Woody Hayes fortfarande var på sidlinjen. Kush guidade Sun Devils till åtta WAC och två gränskonferens titlar och två obesegrade säsonger. År 1975 gick ASU med 12-0 och slutade som nummer 2 i omröstningarna, medan han fortfarande spelade i WAC. Han hjälpte till att vara herd för Sun Devils 'flytt till Pac-10 1978, men sedan fick han sparken fem matcher in i nästa säsong efter anklagelser om missbruk av spelare.

44. Johnny Vaught, 190-61-12
Ole Miss (1947-70 och 1973)

Under ett kvartssekel som Ole Miss-tränare ledde Vaught rebellerna till sex SEC-mästerskap och 18 skålspel. De har inte vunnit en SEC -titel sedan. Från 1959 till '62 slutade Ole Miss i topp fem av de slutliga omröstningarna. Hans lag från 1962 gick 10-0 och slog Arkansas i Sugar Bowl vid en tidpunkt då universitetet fastnade mitt i medborgerliga rörelsen. Vaught var en av få tränare som hade ett vinnande rekord mot Bear Bryant, på 7-6-1.

45. Frank Beamer, 280-144-4
Murray State (1981-86 42-23-2) och Virginia Tech (1987-2015 238-121-2)

Efter en 2-8-1-slut 1992, befarade Beamer att Virginia Tech, hans alma mater, kunde skjuta honom. År 2015 gick han i pension som den vinnande aktiva tränaren i FBS efter att ha guidat Hokies till fyra ACC-titlar, tre Big East-mästerskap och 13 säsonger med 10 segrar. Virginia Techs aggressiva spelstil på speciallag blev känd som "Beamer Ball". Under 1990 -talet blockerade inget lag i landet fler sparkar än Hokies, som hade 66 under decenniet.

46. ​​Urban Meyer, 187-32
Bowling Green (2001-02 17-6), Utah (2003-04 22-2), Florida (2005-10 65-15) och Ohio State (2012-18 83-9)

Meyers tränarkarriär avbröts av hälsoproblem och hans lag plågades ibland av problem utanför planen, men det är svårt att förneka hans framgång. Han vann två nationella titlar i Florida 2006 och '08 och ytterligare en i Ohio State 2014. Hans lag vann sju konferenstitlar med 10 AP-topp-10-mål. Han vann mer än 90% av sina spel i Ohio State, inklusive alla sju mot rivalen Michigan. Hans 187 segrar på 17 säsonger som leder FBS -program är mer än någon annan tränare under lika lång tid.

47. Clarence (Biggie) Munn, 71-16-3
Albright (1935-36 13-2-1), Syracuse (1946 4-5) och Michigan State (1947-53 54-9-2)

Munn coachade i Michigan State i bara sju säsonger men lämnade ett outplånligt märke. Från 1950-53 gick spartanerna 35-2 och vann 1952 nationella mästerskap. Efter att ha gått 9-1 1953 gick Munn i pension under sin karriär, överlämnade sitt program till assistenten Duffy Daugherty och blev MSU: s sportchef. Munn sa en gång att hans "hemliga dröm" var att bara ha en plats till än de 101 001 som rival Michigan påstod vid den tiden.

48. Rip Engle, 132-68-8
Brown (1944-49 28-20-4) och Penn State (1950-65 104-48-4)

Engle är kanske mest känd för att ha coachat quarterbacken Joe Paterno på Brown och sedan föregått honom som Penn State -tränare. På 16 säsonger hade Engles lag aldrig ett förlorande rekord och vann aldrig mer än nio matcher. Nittany Lions vann Lambert Trophy, som österns bästa lag, tre gånger under hans tid.

49. Jimmy Johnson, 81-34-3
Oklahoma State (1979-83 29-25-3) och Miami (1984-88 52-9)

När Miami anställde Johnson för att ersätta Howard Schnellenberger 1984 frågade många Hurricanes -fans "Jimmy who?" Under sin första säsong blåste Miami en ledning i halvtid med 31-0 i förlust mot Maryland, den största i NCAA-historien vid den tiden, och föll till Boston College på Doug Flutys minnesvärda Hail Mary-pass. Hurricanes gick 8-5 under Johnsons första säsong, men de förlorade sällan efter det. Miami gick 44-4 under de kommande fyra säsongerna och vann 1987 nationella titel. Längs vägen omfamnade Johnson Miamis rykte som college -fotbollens bad boys.

50. Lloyd Carr, 122-40
Michigan (1995-2007)

Carr vann fem Big Ten -mästerskap, och 1997 guidade han Wolverines till deras första nationella titel på 49 år. Hans lag vann mer än 75% av hans spel i Michigan, och han var den första tränaren som ledde Wolverines till fyra raka skolsegrar. De gick till ett skålspel under var och en av Carrs 13 säsonger i Ann Arbor, Michigan. Han coachade 23 förstalagsallamerikaner och slutade med sex topp-10-lag.

Duffy Daugherty, höger, skakade hand med Notre Dame-tränaren Ara Parseghian efter Michigan State 10-10-tie med irländarna 1966, var en föregångare i integrationen. AP Foto/fil

51. Hugh (Duffy) Daugherty, 109-69-5
Michigan State (1954-72)

Ingen tränare var mer en katalysator för integration i college -fotboll än Daugherty, som rekryterade 44 svarta spelare från söder för att spela för spartanerna i en tid då lagar och tullar hindrade dem från att spela för skolor i Deep South. Daughertys nationella mästerskapslag 1966 hade 20 svarta spelare, inklusive quarterbacken Jimmy Raye. Fyra av de svarta spelarna som hjälpte till att leda spartanerna till rygg mot rygg obesegrade säsonger och andelar av den nationella titeln 1965 och '66-Clinton Jones, George Webster, Bubba Smith och Gene Washington-togs in i College Football Hall of Fame, tillsammans med deras tränare.

52. Don James, 176-78-3
Kent State (1971-74 25-19-1) och Washington (1975-92 151-59-2)

James, som verkligen kallades "Dawgfather" av Washington -fans, förvandlade Huskies till ett nationellt kraftverk under sina 18 säsonger. Hans lag i Washington vann sex konferenstitlar och en andel av det nationella mästerskapet 1991. Huskies vann Rose Bowl fyra gånger och gick 5-2 i stora skålspel under James. Han började i Kent State, där han coachade en defensiv back som heter Nick Saban, som han senare anställde som examenassistent.

53. Alonzo (Jake) Gaither, 203-36-4
Florida A&M (1945-69)

Gaiter sa berömt att han tyckte att hans spelare var "rörliga, smidiga och fientliga". Under ett kvartssekel visade hans Florida A & M-team verkligen dessa egenskaper. Gaiter coachade 42 framtida NFL -spelare, inklusive "Bullet" Bob Hayes, Willie Galimore och Ken Riley. The Rattlers gick obesegrade 1957, '59 och '61 och vann 18 konferenstitlar och sex svarta college -mästerskap. Hans .844 karriärvinnande andel ligger på elfte plats bland tränare på vilken NCAA -nivå som helst.

54. Sid Gillman, 81-19-2
Miami (Ohio) (1944-47 31-6-1) och Cincinnati (1949-54 50-13-1)

Gillman, som allmänt anses vara fadern till dagens passning och en av spelets största offensiva sinnen, fick sitt rykte i proffsen, där han tillbringade 31 år som tränare och general manager. Men Gillman började på college, där han guidade Miami (Ohio) till en Sun Bowl -seger 1947 och Cincinnati till tre MAC -titlar. Hans fyra sista Bearcats-lag gick sammanlagt 35-5-1. Han är den enda tränaren som är upptagen i både College Football Hall of Fame och Pro Football Hall of Fame.

55. Bill Snyder, 215-117-1
Kansas State (1989-2005 och 2009-18)

Snyder byggde om Kansas State, som traditionellt hade varit ett av sportens mest nedslagen program, inte en gång utan två gånger. När Wildcats anställde Snyder 1988, ärvde han ett program som kom från sin andra säsong utan vinst. Han guidade Wildcats till ett vinnande rekord under sin tredje säsong och till det första av 11 raka skålspel i sin femte. Efter hans pensionering 2006 gled Kansas State tillbaka till medelmåttighet. Han återvände och vann 79 matcher på 10 säsonger i sin andra akt.

56. Wallace Wade, 171-49-10
Alabama (1923-30 61-13-3) och Duke (1931-40 och 1946-50 110-36-7)

Det mest fantastiska beslutet i Wades liv var inte att han lämnade Alabama för Duke, efter att ha riktat Crimson Tide till nationella titlar 1925, '26 och '30. Det kom vid 49 års ålder, efter 10 säsonger i Duke, när han värvade sig i den amerikanska armén och ledde bataljoner i slaget vid Normandie, Battle of the Bulge och den nionde arméns körning genom Tyskland. Han återvände till Duke 1946 och coachade ytterligare fem säsonger. Hans lag spelade i fem Rose Bowls. Wades Alabama-trupp 1926 var den första från södern som spelade i spelet och besegrade Washington med 20-19.

57. Jerry Moore, 242-135-2
North Texas (1979-80 11-11), Texas Tech (1981-85 16-37-2) och Appalachian State (1989-2012 215-87)

När Texas Tech sparkade Moore 1985, befarade han att hans tränarkarriär kan vara över. Han tillbringade tre år på att arbeta för en fastighetsutvecklare tills Arkansas anställde honom som assistent 1988. Bergsklättrare anställde honom 1989, och han vann 215 matcher och tre på varandra följande FCS nationella titlar från 2005-07. Moore vann 10 konferenstitlar och gjorde 18 slutspel med Mountaineers. Naturligtvis kan han vara mest känd för Appalachian State fantastiska 34-32 upprörelse av nr 5 Michigan på Big House 2007.

58. Chris Petersen, 146-38
Boise State (2006-13 92-12) och Washington (2014-19 54-26)

Under 13 säsonger i Boise State, de fem första som offensiv koordinator, hjälpte Petersen att bygga Broncos till gigantiska mördare med ett par BCS-skålspel som störde (särskilt den spännande 43-42 OT-upprörelsen från Oklahoma i Fiesta Bowl 2007) och en uppsjö av trickspel. Som Boise State -huvudtränare hade hans lag tre obesegrade ordinarie säsonger och vann fem konferenstitlar. Hans lag i Washington vann två Pac-12-mästerskap och nådde CFP-semifinalen en gång under sina sex säsonger. Petersen meddelade i december att han hoppar av som Huskies tränare efter skålspelet.

59. Mack Brown, 250-128-1
Appalachian State (1983 6-5), Tulane (1985-87 11-23), North Carolina (1988-97 och 2019-nuvarande 75-52-1) och Texas (1998-2013 158-48)

Med sin folkliga, sydliga charm förenade Brown Texas delade fanskara och återförde Longhorns till nationell framträdande. Från 2001-09 vann Longhorns minst 10 matcher varje säsong. Under en sexårig sträcka från 2004-09 gick UT 69-9 bakom quarterbacks Vince Young och Colt McCoy. År 2005 ledde Young Texas till sin första obestridda nationella titel på 36 år, med en minnesvärd seger på 41-38 över USC i Rose Bowl. Browns 158 segrar på Texas rankas som nummer 2 i skolhistorien, bakom Darrell Royal, som vann 167 på 20 säsonger.

60. Roy Kidd, 314-124-8
Östra Kentucky (1964-2002)

Det mest anmärkningsvärda faktum om Kidds 39-åriga karriär var inte att han vann 314 matcher, 16 konferenstitlar och två nationella mästerskap. Det är att han gjorde allt på en skola. Den före detta quarterbacken i östra Kentucky anställdes som sin alma mater tränare 1964 och lämnade aldrig förrän han gick i pension 2002. Under hans ledning spelade överste för fyra raka division I-AA nationella titlar och vann 1979 och '82. Bland FCS/Div. I-AA-tränare, bara Gramblings Eddie Robinson vann fler matcher än Kidd med 408.

61. George Welsh, 189-132-4
Navy (1973-81 55-46-1) och Virginia (1982-2000 134-86-3)

Welsh vände inte bara ett utan två återvunna program i sin 28-åriga karriär. Under de fem säsongerna innan Navy anställde walisiska 1973 gick Midshipmen tillsammans 12-41. De gick 7-4 under hans tredje säsong och 31-15-1 i hans fyra sista. När Virginia lockade bort Welsh 1982 hade Cavaliers bara lagt två segersäsonger under föregående 29. De gick 8-2-2 under hans tredje säsong och uthärdade bara två förlorande kampanjer under sina 29 år på skolan. Welsh guidade Virginia till sitt första skålspel 1984, första säsongen med 10 segrar och ACC-titel 1989, och dess första nummer 1-ranking-i fyra veckor-1990.

62. Johnny Majors, 185-137-10
Iowa State (1968-72 24-30-1), Pittsburgh (1973-76 och 1993-96 45-45-1) och Tennessee (1977-92 116-62-8)

Efter att Majors guidade Pittsburgh till ett 12-0-rekord och ett nationellt mästerskap 1976, lockade Tennessee sin tidigare stjärnspelare tillbaka till Knoxville, där han hade den längsta oavbrutna tiden i skolhistorien tills han var ute 1992. Majors lag vann SEC-titlar 1985, '89 och '90. Han hade 12 vinnande kampanjer under 16 säsonger på UT och hans lag spelade i 11 skålspel.

63. Don Coryell, 127-24-3
Whittier (1957-59 23-5-1) och San Diego State (1961-72 104-19-2)

Känd som fadern till det vertikala passningsspelet, revolutionerade Coryell sitt "Air Coryell" -brott på 12 säsonger i San Diego State, innan han flyttade till proffsen. Eftersom aztekerna inte kunde rekrytera linjemän och backbackar mot USC och UCLA, valde han att fokusera på quarterbacks och mottagare. Han hjälpte aztekerna att flytta till division I-nivå, och hans lag 1967–70 hade en rad på 31 matcher utan ett nederlag. Han blev den första tränaren som vann 100 matcher på både college och professionell nivå.

64. Ralph (Shug) Jordan, 176-83-6
Auburn (1951-75)

Jordan, en tre-sportstjärna i Auburn, vann fler matcher än någon annan tränare på sin alma mater. År 1973 blev han den första aktiva college-tränaren som fick en stadion namngiven till hans ära när Auburn dedikerade Jordan-Hare Stadium. År 1957 guidade Jordan Tigrarna till ett 10-0-rekord och ett nationellt mästerskap, vilket tillåter endast 28 poäng-och bara sju i SEC-spel. Hans lag slutade i AP topp 25 -omröstningen 13 gånger, fyra gånger i topp fem.

65. Bernie Bierman, 146-62-12
Montana (1919-21 9-9-3), Mississippi State (1925-26 8-8-1), Tulane (1927-31 36-10-2) och Minnesota (1932-41 och 1945-50 93-35- 6)

Bierman var känd som "Grey Eagle", men hans 16-åriga tjänstgöringstid i Minnesota, hans alma mater, kallas "Golden Era". Bierman coachade sex lag som vann Western (Big Ten) Conference -titlar och fem som var obesegrade. Gophers utnyttjade enkelflygelbrottet bakom en obalanserad linje och vann fem nationella mästerskap på åtta år 1934, '35, '36, '40 och '41.

66. Henry (Red) Sanders, 102-41-3
Vanderbilt (1940-42 och 1946-48 36-22-2) och UCLA (1949-57 66-19-1)

Sanders, och inte den legendariska UCLA -tränaren John Wooden, var den ursprungliga "Trollkarlen från Westwood". Han coachade UCLA till sin enda nationella mästerskapssäsong 1954, när Bruins gick 9-0 och delade en nationell titel med Ohio State. Rose Bowls regel om upprepning hindrade lagen från att spela efter ordinarie säsong. UCLA vann tre raka Pacific Coast Conference-titlar från 1953-55. Sanders dog av en hjärtattack ungefär en månad före säsongen 1958.

67. Frank Thomas, 141-33-9
Chattanooga (1925-28 26-9-2) och Alabama (1931-46 115-24-7)

Thomas spelade quarterback för Knute Rockne på Notre Dame, där hans rumskamrat var George Gipp, och han coachade Paul "Bear" Bryant under sina 15 säsonger i Alabama (Alabama hade inget lag 1943 på grund av andra världskriget). Tre av hans Crimson Tide -lag gick obesegrade och hans trupper vann Rose Bowl (två gånger), Orange Bowl och Cotton Bowl. Anmärkningsvärt nog tillät hans Alabama -lag bara 6,3 poäng per match.

68. Lynn (Pappy) Waldorf, 174-100-22
Oklahoma City (1925-27 17-11-3), Oklahoma A&M (1929-33 34-10-7), Kansas State (1934 7-2-1), Northwestern (1935-46 49-45-7) och Kalifornien (1947-56 67-32-4)

Få tränare byggde om nedtrampade program som Waldorf. År 1925 ärvde han ett Oklahoma City -lag som hade vunnit en match på tre år. Han vann fem under sin andra säsong och åtta i sin tredje. Oklahoma A&M gick 1-7 säsongen innan han kom. Hans lag gick 34-10-7, vann fyra konferenstitlar och förlorade aldrig mot Oklahoma. Under sin enda säsong i Kansas State vann Wildcats sitt första ligamästerskap. När Waldorf utsågs till Kaliforniens tränare 1947 hade björnarna inte haft en segersäsong sedan 1938. Cal gick 9-1 under sin första säsong och björnarna gick med 29-3-1 över de tre nästa och vann Pacific Coast Conference-titlar .

69. Joe Fusco, 154-34-3
Westminster, Pennsylvania (1972-90)

Fusco var en av de mest framgångsrika tränarna i NAIA -historien och ledde Westminster till fyra nationella mästerskap i division II. Titans gick 21-1 medan de tog nationella titlar 1976 och '77. Fusco guidade Westminster till back-to-back-titlar igen 1988 och '89, då Titans vann 27 matcher i rad.

70. George Woodruff, 142-25-2
Pennsylvania (1892-1901 124-15-2), Illinois (1903 8-6) och Carlisle (1905 10-4)

Woodruff spelade fotboll med Amos Alonzo Stagg på Yale och coachade John Heisman på Penn. Hans Quaker-lag hade vinnande streck på 34 och 31 matcher, vann 12 matcher på sju raka säsonger och överträffade sina motståndare med en sammanlagd poäng på 1 777-88 under sina 10 säsonger. Från 1894-97 gick Penn 55-1 och vann två nationella mästerskap.

71. John Merritt, 235-70-12
Jackson State (1952-62 63-37-5) och Tennessee State (1963-83 172-33-7)

"Big John" Merritt var en av de mest framgångsrika tränarna i HBCU -historien och vann sju svarta högskolemästerskap. Från 1955 till hans död 1983 hade hans lag 29 vinnande säsonger i rad. Merritt coachade framtida NFL -stjärnor Ed "Too Tall" Jones, Claude Humphrey och Richard Dent.

72. Doyt Perry, 77-11-5
Bowling Green (1955-64)

Perrys tränarkarriär varade bara tio säsonger innan han flyttade till Bowling Greens administration. Hans 85,5%karriärvinstprocent ligger på tredje plats bland FBS -tränare som coachade minst 75 matcher endast Knute Rockne (88,1%) och Frank Leahy (86,4%) vann på högre klipp. Sex av hans tidigare Bowling Green -spelare, inklusive Don Nehlen och Larry Smith, blev FBS -huvudtränare.

73. Danny Ford, 122-59-5
Clemson (1978-89 96-29-4 och Arkansas 1993-97 26-30-1)

Clemson befordrade Ford till huvudtränare i december 1978, två dagar efter att Charley Pell lämnade Florida. Tigrarna slog Ohio State-och tränaren Woody Hayes-i Fords första match, 17-15 i Gator Bowl. Tre år senare blev han den yngsta tränaren som vann en nationell titel vid 33 års ålder. Tigrarna gick 12-0 1981 och besegrade Nebraska 22-15 i Orange Bowl för att vinna skolans första nationella titel. Ford guidade tigrarna till fem ACC-titlar, inklusive tre i rad från 1986-88, och hans lag gick 6-3 i skålspel.

TCU: s Gary Patterson har varit en konsekvent vinnare, oavsett konferensen. AP Photo/Ron Jenkins

74. Gary Patterson, 172-70
TCU (2000-nutid)

Patterson har den sällsynta skillnaden att vinna konferenstitlar (och utses till årets coach) i tre olika ligor på samma skola. Han vaktade Horned Frogs från Conference USA till Mountain West till Big 12. Hans lag har vunnit sex ligatitlar, lagt sju topp-10-mål och spelat i 17 skålspel under sina 20 säsonger. 2010 gick TCU med 13-0 och besegrade Wisconsin med 21-19 i Rose Bowl.

75. Gil Dobie, 182-45-15
North Dakota State (1906-07 7-0), Washington (1908-16 60-0-3), Navy (1917-19 17-3), Cornell (1920-35 82-36-7) och Boston College (1936 -38 16-6-5)

Anmärkningsvärt förlorade Dobie inte en match förrän den 12: e säsongen av sin tränarkarriär. Han gick 7-0 på två säsonger i North Dakota State, och sedan gick hans lag 60-0-3 på nio säsonger i Washington. Under Dobie vann Huskies 39 matcher i rad och gick 61 matcher utan förlust. Hans lag vann senare 26 raka matcher på Cornell.

76. Jim Butterfield, 206-71-1
Ithaca (1967-93)

Han lärde sig på jobbet i en tid då det var tillåtet. Bombers gick 29-29 under hans första sju säsonger. Under de närmaste 20 åren under Butterfield nådde Ithaca slutspelet 11 gånger, vann tre division III -mästerskap och förlorade fyra andra nationella mästerskapsspel.

77. Ron Schipper, 287-67-3
Central (IA) (1961-96)

Schipper vann 18 konferenstitlar på 36 säsonger. Han vann ett division III-mästerskap 1974, var tvåa 1988 och gjorde 12 slutspel. Men så här bra var han: Han hade aldrig en förlustsäsong.

78. Lance Leipold, 139-38
Wisconsin-Whitewater (2007-2014 109-6) och Buffalo (2015-nuvarande 30-32)

Perhaps more impressive than winning six Division III national championships in eight seasons at Whitewater, Leipold took down the dynasty that was Mount Union. The Warhawks had winning streaks of 46 and 32 games under Leipold. It took him four seasons to take Buffalo to a MAC East title.

79. Don Nehlen, 202-128-8
Bowling Green (1968-76 53-35-4), West Virginia (1980-2000 149-93-4)

Nehlen in 1980 took over a Mountaineer program that had won 17 games in the previous four seasons. In the next four seasons, they won 33, and that was only the start. West Virginia went 11-0 in the 1988 regular season and lost to Notre Dame for the national championship. Five years later, the Mountaineers went 11-0 again before losing to Florida in the Sugar Bowl.

80. Howard Jones, 194-64-21
Syracuse (1908 6-3-1), Yale (1909 and 1913 15-2-3), Ohio State (1910 6-1-3), Iowa (1916-23 42-17-1), Duke (1924 4-5) and USC (1925-40 121-36-13)

Jones coached one of Yale's greatest teams in 1909 (10-0), and he led Iowa to 20 consecutive wins (1920-23), but he had his greatest success at USC. Jones' Trojans had three undefeated seasons and went 5-0 in Rose Bowls. He and his good friend Knute Rockne started the USC-Notre Dame rivalry, the longest annual intersectional rivalry in the game.

81. Bob Reade, 146-23-1
Augustana (1979-94)

Reade led the Vikings to the Division III national championship game in 1982, where they lost. They won the next four national titles, on their way to a 60-game unbeaten streak. The Vikings also won 12 conference titles in Reade's tenure.

82. Jim Tatum 100-35-7
North Carolina (1942 and 1956-58 19-17-3), Oklahoma (1946 8-3) and Maryland (1947-55 73-15-4)

Tatum took the Terrapins to their only national championship in 1953. He recruited Doc Blanchard to North Carolina in 1942 both of them left Chapel Hill because of the war. Tatum coached one year at Oklahoma, then was succeeded by Bud Wilkinson, who led the Sooners to three national titles. Tatum's second tenure at North Carolina was cut short by his death at age 46 of a rare infection.

Dennis Erickson had a .500 or better record at six different schools, in addition to two national titles at Miami and a No. 4 finish at Oregon State. Stephen Dunn/Getty Images

83. Dennis Erickson, 179-96-1
Idaho (1982-85 and 2006 36-23), Wyoming (1986 6-6), Washington State (1987-88 12-10-1), Miami (1989-94 63-9), Oregon State (1999-2002 31-17) and Arizona State (2007-11 31-31)

Erickson is best known for his six seasons at Miami, where his Canes won two national titles (1989 and 1991) and played for a third. His best accomplishment may have been at Oregon State, where Erickson led the Beavers from mediocrity to an 11-1 record and a No. 4 ranking in 2000.

84. Terry Donahue, 151-74-8
UCLA (1976-95)

Donahue remains at the top of many of the Bruins' coaching records. Under his leadership, UCLA won five conference titles and, at one juncture, eight consecutive bowls over 10 seasons. More convincing, he has 85 more wins in Westwood than any other Bruins coach.

85. Mike Kelly, 246-51-1
Dayton (1981-2007)

Kelly led the Flyers to four Division III national championship games, with a win in 1989. Four years later, Kelly took Dayton from Division III to the FCS. His teams won 10 games in 12 different seasons. Kelly also was an influence on Oakland Raiders coach Jon Gruden, who transferred to Dayton in Kelly's second season and spent three seasons as a backup quarterback.

86. Mel Tjeerdsma, 242-82-4
Austin (1984-93 59-39-4) and Northwest Missouri State (1994-2011 183-43)

Tjeerdsma won three Division II national titles at Northwest Missouri State. The third, in 2009, may have been the sweetest: The Bearcats had lost the Division II national championship game in the previous four seasons. They also won 12 conference titles during his tenure.

87. Fred Folsom, 107-28-6
Colorado (1895-1902 and 1908-15 78-23-2), Dartmouth (1903-06 29-5-4)

Folsom enjoyed four unbeaten seasons at Colorado, including three straight from 1909-11, part of a 21-game winning streak over five seasons. That was his second tenure with the Buffs Folsom went 29-5-4 at Dartmouth from 1903-06. Folsom retired from coaching in 1915 at age 42, but he continued at his chief job on the Boulder campus: He taught at the law school until 1943.

88. Dan Devine, 172-57-9
Arizona State (1955-57 27-3-1), Missouri (1958-70 92-38-7) and Notre Dame (1975-80 53-16-1)

The more important of Devine's two Big Eight titles at Mizzou over a 13-year span was the first, the one in 1960 that broke Oklahoma's long hold on the league. After four mediocre seasons in Green Bay, Devine returned to the college game for its biggest job. He replaced Ara Parseghian at Notre Dame and led the Irish to a national title in 1977, his third season.

89. Brian Kelly, 241-93-2
Grand Valley State (1991-2003 118-35-2), Central Michigan (2004-06 19-16), Cincinnati (2006-09 34-6) and Notre Dame (2010-current 70-36)

Kelly led Grand Valley State to two Division II national championships. He won conference titles at Central Michigan (MAC) and Cincinnati (Big East). Though he hasn't won a national title at Notre Dame, he has come close: a BCS championship game loss in 2012 and a playoff semifinal loss in 2018. More importantly, he restored respectability to the Fighting Irish.

90. Barry Alvarez, 119-74-4
Wisconsin (1990-2005, 2012, 2014)

It's hard to fathom the reclamation Alvarez performed in Madison. The Badgers won nine total games in the four years prior to his arrival. Wisconsin won the Big Ten and the Rose Bowl in Alvarez's fourth season. The Badgers won both the conference and the Rose Bowl twice more in the 1990s and went 9-4 in bowls under Alvarez. He retired as head coach after 16 seasons, staying on as Wisconsin's athletic director, and returned as interim coach for two bowl games in 2012 and 2014.

91. Hayden Fry, 232-178-10
SMU (1962-72 49-66-1), North Texas State (1973-78 40-23-3) and Iowa (1979-1998 143-89-6)

In 17 seasons prior to his arrival at Iowa, Fry won one conference title at SMU and one at North Texas State. Iowa hadn't had a winning season since 1961. Fry took the Hawkeyes to the Big Ten championship in his third season (1981) and two more in the next nine years. A more lasting effect of his tenure was that 13 of Fry's assistants and players became FBS head coaches. Two, Bill Snyder and Barry Alvarez, joined Fry in the College Football Hall of Fame.

92. Roger Harring, 261-75-7
Wisconsin-LaCrosse (1969-99)

Harring won three national championships (one NAIA Div. II, two NCAA Div. III) and 15 conference titles while leading the Eagles to steady, unstinting success. Harring had only one losing season, in 1998 in the following season, his last, the Eagles won a share of the league title and went to Harring's 14th national playoff.

93. Howard Schnellenberger, 158-151-3
Miami (1979-83 41-16), Louisville (1985-94 54-56-2) Oklahoma (1995 5-5-1) and FAU (2001-11 58-74)

No one in the history of the game proved to be as consistent a turnaround artist as Schnellenberger. He took Miami from mediocrity to a national championship in 1983 with a thrilling win over No. 1 Nebraska in the Orange Bowl he took Louisville from doormat to a major bowl and he built the FAU program from scratch, taking the Owls to the Division I-AA semifinals.

94. Phillip Fulmer, 152-52
Tennessee (1992-2008)

Fulmer led the Volunteers to their highest heights in the post-Neyland era. He lured Peyton Manning to sign a scholarship in 1994. The success that followed pushed Tennessee to the BCS championship in 1998, the year after Manning left. Fulmer had the bad fortune to be at Tennessee in the Steve Spurrier Era at Florida. Fulmer went 3-7 vs. Spurrier, which is why Fulmer won only two SEC titles.

95. Elmer Layden, 103-34-11
Loras (1925-26 8-5-2), Duquesne (1927-33 48-16-6) and Notre Dame (1934-40 47-13-3)

He is better known as one of Notre Dame's Four Horsemen and the hero of the 1925 Rose Bowl. Layden returned to his alma mater in 1934 as the second coach to replace Knute Rockne. His record of 47-13-3 in South Bend would have been viewed as a success at any other school. But after hearing a solid drumbeat of criticism, Layden jumped at the chance to become NFL commissioner in 1940.

96. Charlie McClendon, 137-59-7
LSU (1962-79)

McClendon led the Tigers to nine ranked finishes, but they won only one SEC championship, in 1970, because he had the poor timing of coaching in the league at the same time as Alabama's Bear Bryant (for whom McClendon played at Kentucky). McClendon went 2-14 against Bryant. He led the Tigers to 13 bowl games, including two Cotton Bowls, two Orange Bowls and two Sugar Bowls.


Getting world history right: real African history

Years after the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2011 as “The International Year for People of African Descent”, it must be realized that the European enslavement of African people or the “MAAFA” (“great disaster”) only represents .01 per cent of the history of African people on this planet. Put another way, for the 99.9 per cent of their history, Africans were a free people.

Furthermore, “there were a thousand years of independent state formation and state management in inner West Africa called the western Sudan before the (European) slave trade.”

The purpose of this article, therefore, is to posit in its proper historical perspective, a unique Afri-centric, geo-political linkage analysis of African history.

At the outset, it must be stated quite equivocally, categorically and emphatically that contrary to the xenophobic description/label to describe Haiti and countries in Africa in derogatory language only directly resembles and refers to countries in Europe in the 15th century A.D. it certainly neither resembles nor refers to countries in Africa prior to that period.

In the case of Haiti, the leaders of the successful, violent, Islamic Haitian revolution 1791-1804 were Jean Jacques Dessalines, Henri Christophe, Toussaint L’ Ouverture and Dutty Boukman- a Jamaican-born Muslim and also known as a “man of the book”. According to Sylvaine Diouf in his treatise titled “The Muslim Factor in the Haitian Revolution” (2013): “the Muslims were essential in the success of the Haitian revolution.” During the 1791-1804 period, these Africans defeated the Euro-British and the Euro-French. In fact, these Africans defeated the all-mighty French general Napoleon Bonaparte who at that time commanded the most powerful army in Europe.

According to deceased historian C. L. R. James in The Black Jacobins (1938), the most significant, historical aspect/impact of the Haitian revolution is that it “killed the West Indian slave trade and slavery.” Furthermore, it not only served as the catalyst for subsequent slave revolts throughout the Caribbean but also most importantly, it ushered in Haiti as the först independent, sovereign nation-state in the entire Western Hemisphere ruled by Africans. Ipso facto, the stark, historical reality check is that Africans in Haiti won their political independence from Euro-France per armed revolution.

On 1st January 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines, as Governor-General, proclaimed himself “Emperor of the New State.” In essence, then, the ultimate, albeit indisputable, historical legacy of the African- Haitian revolution is: “Europeans are not unbeatable.”

In the case of Africa, deceased, erudite, Afri-centric scholar/historian Dr. John Henrik Clarke has specifically pointed out and elucidated the salient historical reality that:
Civilization did not start in European countries and the rest of the world did not wait in darkness for the Europeans to bring the light…. Most of the history books in the last five hundred years have been written to glorify Europeans at the expense of other peoples…. Most Western historians have not been willing to admit that there is an African history to be written about and that this history predates the emergence of Europe by thousands of years. It is not possible for the world to have waited in darkness because Europeans themselves were in darkness. When the light of culture came for the first time to the people who would later call themselves Europeans, it came from Africa and Middle Eastern Asia. It is too often forgotten that, when the Europeans emerged and began to extend themselves into the broader world of Africa and Asia during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, they went on to colonize most of mankind. Later, they would colonize world scholarship, mainly to show or imply that Europeans were the only creators of what could be called a civilization. In order to accomplish this, the Europeans had to forget, or pretend to forget, all they previously knew about Africa.

And this Afri-centric, historical assertion is corroborated by R.R. Plamer and Joel Colton in their book titled A History of the Modern World (1984) to the extent that:
Europeans are by no means the pioneers of human civilization. Half of man’s recorded history had passed before anyone in Europe could read or write. The (High) priests of Egypt began to keep written records between 4,000 and 3,000 B.C., but more than two thousand years later, the poems of Homer were still being circulated in the Greek city-states by word of mouth. Shortly after 3,000 B.C., while the Pharaohs were building the first pyramids (in Egypt), Europeans were creating nothing more distinguished than huge garbage heaps.

In regard to the aforementioned quotes, it is indeed imperative to distinguish clearly between “History” and “His-story.” By way of elucidation, “History is the truth about the past. His-story is the white man’s (European’s) version of the past, a distorted, racist and often fictitious story.”

The stark reality that Western “His-storians have also contended that the Egyptians were tan-Europeans”, provides de jure evidence to distinguish between these two conflicting assertions.

However, this historical confusion is aptly clarified by the Euro-French historian Count C. F. Volney in his Ruins of Empires (1980) as follows: “There a people, now forgotten, discovered while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race of men now rejected for their black skin and wooly hair founded on the study of the laws of nature these civil and religious systems which still govern the universe.”

And this historical narrative now reaches the vital juncture of the three “Golden Ages” of African civilization. According to Dr. John Henrik Clarke in his article titled “Africa: The Passing of the Golden Age”: “The first age coincides with archaeological work… during this period, the basic institution of all human societies was formed: the family. The establishment of a family structure forced the development of ways and means to preserve the family as an institution. In this phase too, the purely African communities… mastered the smelting of iron and the fashioning of tools and weapons and gave impetus to the high civilization of Egypt in 1600 B.C. The second Age begins in 1700 B.C. when Egypt expels Asian invaders, the Hyksos and the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty was established. The third Golden Age is that which contains the rise of the Western Sudanic kingdoms— Ghana, Songhay and Mali.”

Indeed, “the first of the great empires of the Western Sudan to become known to the outside world was Ghana. It began as a small settlement during the second century of the Christian era. It would later develop into a state and reached the height of its greatness during the reign of Tenkamenin, one of its greatest kings, who came to power in 1062 A.D. The king lived in a palace of stone and wood, which was built to be defended in time of war.” Dr. Clarke further elucidates that this “empire was well organized. The political progress and social well-being of its people could be favorably compared to the best kingdoms and empires in Europe at that time. The country had a military force of 200,000 men.”

In the final analysis, Ghana was invaded by the Almoravides under Abu Bekr in 1076 A.D. This conquest ended Ghana’s age of prosperity and socio-cultural development. In its heyday, Ghana was described as “the greatest kingdom of the Blacks” and “the most commercial of the Black countries.”

On the other hand, Timbuctoo, “the queen city of the Western Sudan”, was “the great intellectual nucleus of the Songhai Empire.” These scholars were known and respected throughout most of Africa and Europe. During this age of African history, “the University of Sankore was the educational capital of the Western Sudan.”

Mansa Musa was the emperor of the famous Kingdom of Mali. He epitomized “the whole wealth of Africa.” In addition, “he conquered the Songhai Empire and rebuilt the University of Sankore” plus, “he was the most colorful of the Black kings of the 14th century.” The empire of Mali experienced a drastic decline after the death of Mansa Musa. Songhai replaced Mali in position of power and importance in Africa under King Askia the Great. According to Dr. Clarke, King Askia the Great’s claims to fame are (1) when he came to power in 1498, he “consolidated the territory conquered by the previous ruler Sonni Ali and built Songhai into the most powerful State in the Western Sudan His realm, it is said, was larger than all Europe” (11) he is known as “one of the most brilliant and enlightened administrators of all times” (111) he “reorganized the army of Songhai, improved the system of banking and credit and made the city-states Gao, Walata, Timbuctoo and Jenne into intellectual centres” (1v) he “encouraged scholarship and literature. Students from all over the Moslem world came to Timbuctoo to study grammar, law and surgery at the University of Sankore scholars came from North Africa and Europe to confer with learned historians and writers of this Black empire ” and (v) “Askia has been hailed as one of the wisest monarchs of the Middle Ages.”

Ergo, it need occasion no great surprise hat in book titled The Progress and Evolution of Man in Africa (1961), the Euro-British historian Dr. L. S. B. Leaky asks the formidable/logical question: “What has Africa contributed to world progress?” He further suggests that “the critics of Africa forget that men of science today, with few exceptions, are satisfied that Africa was the birthplace of man himself and that for many hundreds of centuries thereafter, Africa was in the forefront of all human progress And this progress is further amplified by John W. Weatherwax in his pamphlet titled The African Contribution (1966) in which he zeroes in on The African Contribution to the early development of humankind as follows:

The early Africans made hooks to catch fish, spears to hunt with, the bola, with which to catch birds and animals, the blow gun, the hammer, the stone axe, canoes and paddles, bags and buckles, poles, bows and arrows.
The pre-history of mankind is called the Stone Age. It may have lasted half a million years. Canoes made it possible for man to travel farther from his early home. Over many centuries, canoes went down the Nile (river) and up many smaller rivers and streams. From the blow gun of ancient Africa, there followed, in later ages, many devices based on its principles. Some of them are the bellows, bamboo air pumps, the rifle, the pistol, the revolver, the automatic machine gun and even those industrial guns that puff grain. African hunters many times cut up game. There still exists from the old Stone Age, drawings of animal bones, hearts and other organs.

The early drawings are a part of man’s early beginnings in the field of anatomy. 10 The fact of the matter is that until recently, the typical Euro-centric Western historian has always maintained that the origin of all humankind had been in Asia, specifically the Java region of Southern Asia. However, the first modern-day person to suggest that Africa is “the cradle of civilization and humankind” is Charles Darwin in his magnum opus Descent of Man (1871). Of course, Darwin had already shaken up the scientific world with his theories of evolution and natural selection. His prophecy that “Africa would be found to be the origin of the human species was rejected out of hand by the scientific community and considered heresy in the social and political world.”
Conversely, scholars of the ancient world, uncontaminated by the need and desire to conform to the presumption of European superiority and supremacy, had routinely hypothesizes that indeed “Africa had been the birthplace of man.”

The stark historical reality is that Diodorus Siculus, a Euro-Roman scholar writing in the first century B.C. concluded that: The Ethiopians say that they were the first man that ever were in the world and that to prove this they have clear demonstrations. It is most possible that those who inhabit the South were the first living men that sprang out of the earth. It is rational to conclude that those nearest to the sun should have been the first parents of all living creatures.

The salient reality is that for centuries, the Euro-Western world and scholars have bitterly resisted the notion that Africa should be recognized as the birthplace of all humankind. But the evidence is too overwhelming to deny that truism out of existence. In fact, Dr. John Henrik Clarke surmises that “although much remains to be learned and several academic controversies continue to boil concerning specific details of these early ancestors, the broad outline of early human history has become increasingly clear.” It includes the following indisputable, historical truths: “As early as 600,000 B.C., there were only Africans. That is, the only ancestors of humans alive, lived on the African Continent. Between 500,000 — 400,000 B.C., Africans began to migrate to other parts of the world. Isolation and environmental differences worked to produce differing physical characteristics within migrating groups.”

Furthermore, in his book titled A Lost Tradition: African Philosophy in World History (1995), Dr. Theophile Obenga quotes the Greek philosopher Aristotle ranking ancient Kemet (Egypt) as “the most ancient archaeological reserve in the world” and “that is how the Egyptians whom we (Greeks) considered the most ancient of the human race.” According to Dr. Obenga “the ancient Greeks traced all human inventions to the Egyptians from Calculus, Geometry, Astronomy and to Writing….Since the time of Homer, Egyptian antiquity functioned strictly as a highly memoralized component of Greek history Herodotus said it, Plato confirmed it and Aristotle never denied it.” In fact, Aristotle himself confesses: “Thus, the mathematical sciences first originated in Egypt (Africa), the cradle of mathematics.” 14

Indeed, it must be pointed out here that most of the now renowned/revered Greeks (the world’s first Europeans) all studied at the Temple of Waset in ancient Kemet (Egypt) Africa. This Temple is the world’s first university. It is known as the “royal septer” and was built during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep 111 , in the XV111 Dynasty circa 1391 B.C. At its zenith, it educated 80,000 students. This Temple was re-named Thebes by the Greeks, namely, Alexander the so-called “great” when he invaded Kemet (Egypt) in 332 B.C. and Luxor by the Arabs when they invaded Egypt in 641 A.D. For example, Plato studied at the Temple of Waset in ancient Kemet (Egypt) Africa for 11 years Aristotle for 11-13 years Socrates was there for 15 years Euclid studied there for 10-11 years Pythagoras for 22 years Hypocrates was there for 20 years and the other Greeks who matriculated in Africa were Solon, Thales, Archimides and Euripides. Indeed, the Greek, St. Clement of Alexandria once stated that “if you were to write a book of 1,000 pages, you would not be able to put down the names of all the Greeks who went to Kemet (Africa) to be educated and even those who did not surreptitiously claim they went because it was prestigious.”

Moreover, contrary to Euro-centric geo-political, historical mis-information, (albeit edjumacation), the world’s first Olympics that was held in Olympia, Greece in 776 B.C., was not held to promote and reward sportsmanship, physical brawn or brinkmanship instead, it was held as a public spiritual ceremony to worship the African deity Amon, “ruler of the Gods.”

In fact, historiography proves quite convincingly that the European Gods and Goddesses were actually of African origin but given European names. As prima facie evidence, the African God Amon was re-named Zeus by the Greeks and Jupiter by the Romans the African God Heru was called Apollo by both the Greeks and Romans the world’s first recorded multi-genius the African Imhotep (builder of the Step pyramid at Saqqara in 2630 B.C.) was re-named Asclepius by the Greeks and Aesclapius by the Romans the African God Djhuti/Thoth (God of science, writing and knowledge) was called Hermes by the Greeks and Mercury by the Romans the African God Pluto was re-named Neptune by the Romans and Poseidon by the Greeks the African God Ausar (God of resurrection) was re-named Osiris by both the Greeks and Romans the African Goddess Hathor (Goddess of love and beauty) was called Aphrodite by the Greeks and Venus by the Romans the African Goddess Ist/Aset (Goddess of maternity) was re-named Isis and worshipped as “the Black Madonna.” More specifically, this African Goddess had such an impact on Europeans that if one were to decipher the capital city of Euro-France, it is Paris which means “Per Isis” plus the Cathedral of Notre Dame is also in honor/worship of this African Goddess Ist/Aset.

Indeed, there is absolutely no field of human endeavor, contribution, achievement in which Africans have originated save the field of medicine. And this unique African medical originality informs the Euro-centric geo-political, historical mis-information about the “Caesarean Section.”

The fact of the matter is that the two principal individuals in this scenario are the then Pharaoh of ancient Kemet (Egypt) Cleopatra V11 (Winter 69 B.C.-12 August 30 B.C.) and Euro-Roman Emperor Julius Caesar. In her seminal opus titled Cleopatra: From History to Legend (1997), Edith Flamarion states that when Egyptian Pharaoh Ptolemy X11 died in March 51 B.C., he decreed that his successors should be his two eldest children, namely, Cleopatra V11, who was then eighteen years old and Ptolemy X111, who was just ten years old.

“According to Ptolemaic dynastic law, Cleopatra had to marry Ptolemy X111 ” but this was not a sexually consummated marriage. Ergo, Cleopatra V11, then, became “mistress of the two lands”, that is, Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Kemet (Egypt). Circa 48 B.C., there was an “internal revolt against Cleopatra V11” and Julius Caesar entered the city of Alexandria “as a conqueror” and was able to pacify the Alexandrians that “as consul, he represented Roman Law.”

Julius Caesar then “summoned both Cleopatra and her brother in order to settle the conflict between them.”
However, before the meeting with Julius Caesar Cleopatra sent several “emissaries ” to him in order to ascertain “his good intentions” When she finally agreed to go to Alexandria to meet Caesar, Cleopatra travelled “in the dead of night” and hidden and wrapped “in a coverlet … rolled in a carpet” because she feared “her brother’s spies and his attempts to impede her.”

Legend has it that Cleopatra (“glory of the father”) was “smuggled into (Caesar’s) apartment.” They had sexual intercourse that night, either “for reasons of political convenience” or mere human physical attraction.
However, in the Spring of 47 B.C., both Julius Caesar and Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra V11 went “on a long voyage up the Nile abroad a luxurious pleasure barge.”

Depicted as “a lover’s outing”, it was a political tour intended to show the people of the country their true master. Nevertheless, when Julius Caesar left Kemet /Egypt in May 47 B.C., Pharaoh Cleopatra V11 was pregnant. This “lighting-hike eastern campaign” has given rise to Julius Caesar’s famous or infamous historical quote: “Veni, vidi, vinci”— “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Julius Caesar was circa 52 years of age at the time.

Indeed, the record reveals that on 23 June 47 B.C., Pharaoh Cleopatra V11 gave birth to her first child, a baby boy named Caesarion which means “Little Caesar”.

However, what is most significant in this scenario and in terms of real African history is that Pharaoh Cleopatra V11’s delivery was not normal. The high priests of ancient Kemet (Egypt) Africa had to perform an original, special medical procedure to deliver Pharaoh Cleopatra V11’s baby boy. And this historic, original African medical procedure performed in the B.C. era, is now globalized as the “Caesarean Section” —- to our African ancestors be the glory!

In terms of real African history in the A.D. era, evidence of this African “human progress” is clearly corroborated in 711 A.D. when the African general Tarikh ben Zaid also known as Gibral Tarik (the “Rock of Gibraltar”) and a 10,000 army of African Muslims (Moors) invaded Spain and routed the “savage” Europeans. As J.C. de Graft-Johnson, “a dean of African historians”, points out in his master-piece African Glory: “The conquest of Spain was an African conquest. They were Mohammedan Africans who laid low the Gothic Kingdom of Spain.

In terms of prior 15th century world historiography, Baba Zak Kondo validates in his book titled The Black Student’s Guide to Positive Education, the historical African linkage analysis that:
Tarik and his (African Moors) made Spain the most advanced society in Western Europe for 700 years. These Africans, among other things, introduced the common bath and undergarments to the Europeans and built Europe’s first universities. Moreover, (these Africans) made Spain a center for the arts and sciences. Moorish civilization in Spain was most visible in (the) tenth century. Indeed, the historical record reveals that the first university these Africans/Moors established/built in Europe was the University of Salamanca in Spain in 900 A.D. In other words, prior to the 15th century A.D., Africans humanized, educated and civilized European in the B.C. epok. During that era, ancient Kemet/Egypt was known as “the land of the Blacks”, “the Black land’ or “the Light of the world.”

Indeed, the 700 plus years the African Moors occupied Spain (711-1485) gave rise to the emergence of Europeans on a global scale during the period 1400-1600. As Dr. John Henrik Clarke explains in his book titled Christopher Columbus & the Afrikan Holocaust:

This was a point in history when Europeans freed themselves from the lethargy of the Middle Ages, the aftermath of the Crusades and the famines and plagues (as in the “bubonic plague”) that had taken one-third (20 million) of the population of Europe. It is also the period when Europeans freed themselves from almost a thousand-year fear of Islam and what they referred to as the Infidel Arabs, who had been controlling the Mediterranean and its trade routes since the decline of the Roman Empire in the middle of the 7th century. The renewal of European nationalism, the marriage of (King) Ferdinand and (Queen) Isabella of Spain, the expulsion of the Arabs, Moors and the Jews from Spain in 1492 and the introduction of the slave trade gave Europe a new economic lease on life. Europeans (then) had to create a rationale and a series of myths to justify their new position (in the world) and what they intended to extract from non-European people (from the 15th century onward).

On the one hand, deceased Guyanese African history scholar Dr. Walter Rodney has expounded on the first aspect of European 15th century rise to global power in his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa). And in this process of Africa’s underdevelopment, it must be remembered that for over 400 years disparate Europeans took the “most productive elements” (skilled agricultural artisans) out of Africa, that is, young people between ages 15-25 years, at least two men to one woman. And that is exactly how Europe became developed/industrialized and Africa became underdeveloped and still remains in that status as of this writing.
On the other hand, “the greatest achievement of the Europeans was the conquest of the mind of their victims” and in this process, Europeans not only colonized the world but most importantly, they colonized/Europeanized information about the world as “part of the manifestation of the evil genius of Europe.”

Through this process of Euro-centric global miseducation, the world was “forced to forget that over half of human history was over before anyone knew that a European was in the world.” In addition, Europeans made “every effort to wipe from (the African) memory how they ruled a state and how they related to their spirituality before the coming of the European.

In the final analysis, when the Europeans entered Africa in the 15th century, “the Africans were (too) open-minded and politically naïve in their relationship with non- African people, especially the Europeans. They did not know the intentions and the temperament of the Europeans then and they do not know it now” so opines Dr. John Henrik Clarke. As the deceased leader of the 1960s Mau Mau anti-colonial revolution Jomo Kenyatta correctly surmised: “When the (European) missionaries arrived, the African had the land and the missionaries had the Bible. They taught us how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible.” However, as P. Olisanwuche Esedebe has prognosticated in his Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776-1991: Africa peoples “must live in the hope, that in the process of time, their turn will come, when they will (again) occupy a prominent position in the world’s history and when they will command a voice in the (global) council of nations (as their ancestors once did in the B.C. era)”.

Indeed, historiography postulates that Africans are the Alpha and the Omega— the beginning and the end. And in the poignant but immortal words of the millennium African hero Marcus Mosiah Garvey to African peoples all over the world: ” Up you mighty race, you can accomplish what you will.” And the flip side of this geo-political notion is strongly reinforced in the speech by Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah to the United Nations General assembly on 23 September 1960 in which he warned that “as long as a single foot of African soil remains under foreign domination, the world shall know no peace.”


Religion

Throughout much of Egypt&rsquos ancient history its people followed a polytheistic religion in which a vast number of gods and goddesses were venerated. One of the most important was Osiris, god of the underworld. Abydos was an important cult center for him and numerous temples and shrines were constructed at the site in his honor.

Navigating the underworld was vital to the ancient Egyptians, who believed that the dead could reach a paradise of sorts, where they could live forever. Egyptian dead were sometimes mummified, preserving the body, and were sometimes buried with spells that aided them in navigating the underworld.

In ancient Egyptian mythology, one of the first steps in navigating the underworld was to weigh a person's deeds against the feather of Maat. If the person had committed a great deal of wrongdoing, the person's heart would be heavier than the feather and the person's soul would be obliterated. On the other hand, if their deeds were generally good, they passed forward and had the opportunity to successfully navigate the underworld.

Figurines called shabti were often buried with the deceased &mdash their purpose being to do the work of the deceased in the afterlife for them.

Egyptian religion did not remain static, but changed over time. One major change occurred during the reign of the pharaoh Akhenaten (ca. 1353-1335 B.C.), a ruler who unleashed a religious revolution that saw Egyptian religion become focused around the worship of the "Aten" the sun disk. He built an entirely new capital in the desert at Amarna and ordered the names of some of Egypt's deities to be defaced. After Akhenaten&rsquos death his son, Tutankhamun, denounced him and returned Egypt to its previous polytheistic religion.

When Egypt came under Greek and Roman rule, their gods and goddesses were incorporated into Egyptian religion. Another major change occurred after the first century A.D. when Christianity spread throughout Egypt. At this time Gnosticism, a religion that incorporated some Christian beliefs, also spread throughout Egypt and a large corpus of Gnostic texts were discovered in 1945 in southern Egypt near the city of Nag Hammadi.

Islam spread throughout the country after A.D. 641 after the country was captured by a Muslim army. Today, Islam is practiced by the majority of Egypt's inhabitants, while a minority are Christian, many being part of the Coptic Church.


Key figures

The most important key figures provide you with a compact summary of the topic of "Brazil" and take you straight to the corresponding statistics.

Ekonomi

Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in Brazil 2026

Gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate in Brazil 2026

Unemployment rate in Brazil 2020

Inflation rate in Brazil 2026

Import of goods to Brazil 2019

Export of goods from Brazil 2019

Trade balance of Brazil 2019

Made-In Country Index: perception of products made in Brazil, by country 2017

National Finances

National debt of Brazil in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) 2026

Brazil's budget balance in relation to GDP 2026

Ratio of government expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) in Brazil 2026


Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course

The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some important dietary changes happened in the last decades as a result of the complex determinants of NT, such as urbanization, the economic growth dynamic, cultural and behavioral shifts. The NT has involved an increased consumption of caloric beverages, ultra-processed products, animal foods, edible oils and soft drinks, accompanied by a significant reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and milk. Global obesity prevalence increased from 4.8% in 1980 to 9.8% in 2008 for men, and from 7.9% in 1980 to 13.8% in 2008 for women, representing 205 million men and 297 million women with obesity and 1.46 billion with overweight in 2008. The context of the NT needs to be taken into account when developing effective obesity prevention strategies across the life-course.


Titta på videon: Валерий Карпин - как живёт новый тренер сборной России и какое у него гражданство (Juni 2022).


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